Types of sand casting tools and equipment – Mazurek Gravity

Types of sand casting tools and equipment

Types of foundry or casting tools and equipment used in foundry shops are used for carrying out different operations. such as sand preparation, pouring, molding and casting. These tools are classified as hand tools and conditioning tools. They are; flasks, power-operated equipment, metal melting equipment, and fettling and finishing equipment.

Most common sand casting tools used in foundry shops

Sand casting tools are mostly used in molding operations, sand conditioning tools are basically used for preparing different types of casting sands. and core sand. Flasks are commonly used for preparing sand molds and keeping molten metal. The followings listed below are types of sand casting tools:

Hand riddle:

hand riddle is a type of foundry tools generally used for cleaning sand. They are used for separating sand and another object that serve as obstacles when molding. Materials such as nails, splinters of wood, short metals etc. hand riddle consist of a circular wide wire mesh equipped with a circular frame.


shovels are other types of casting tools that consist of a customize sheet metal or steel pan with a wooden handle. They are used for moving or transferring the molding sand into the container, molding box or flask. Shovels are basically used for mixing, tempering and conditioning the foundry sand by hand. The shovel should be maintained by keeping it clean.


Rammers are available in different types. They are used for repairing or arranging the molding sand that looses from the mold. These types of sand casting tools are used to pack or compact the uniformly around the pattern.

Types of rammer:

  • Hand rammer:  is generally made of wood or metal. It is portable and one end which carries a wedge type construction. It is used for ramming the sand in bench moulding work.
  • Peen rammer:  is generally used in packing the moulding sand in pockets and corners. Peen rammer has a wedge-shaped construction with a metallic rod at the bottom.
  • Floor rammer: floor rammer is heavy and layers when compared with hand rammer. It consists of a long steel bar with a peen at one end and a flat portion on the other. Floor rammer is used in floor molding for ramming sand for larger molds.
  • Pneumatic rammer: this type of rammer is used for making large molds just as floor rammer. It eases work, save time and reduces hard labor.

Sprue pin

sprue pin is used to produce a vertical hole in a sand casting. It is made of wood, metal or tapered rod. It is pushed in cope to join the mold cavity and produces a cylindrical or conical shape in the molding sand.

Strike of bar

strike bars are sand casting tools that are made of iron and wood. they are used to remove or strike off excess sand from the top of a molding box. It is made of the flat bar having a straight edge.


Mallets is a sand casting tools used in driving the draw spike into the pattern. It’s also used for rapping in order to easily separate the mold from the pattern from leaving the mold cavity. Causing it not damage the mold surface. Generally, mallet used in carpentry or sheet work.

Draw spike

Draw spike is a tapered steel rod having a screw head on the end and a loop or ring at the end. It is used for driving into a pattern which is embedded in the molding sand and reps the pattern. In order to get separate from the pattern and finally draws it out from the mold cavity.

Vent rod

Vent rods is another type of casting tools made of a round-headed wooden handle and a pointed edge. At the end made of wire of thin spiked steel rod. It is used after utilizing ramming and striking of excess sand to produce a series of small holes in the molding sand in the cope portion. The holes pierce allows the steam and gases produced during the pouring process and solidifying stage to escape.


Lifter is also known as cleaners or finishing tools. It’s used for cleaning, repairing and finishing the bottom and sides of the deep and narrow opening in the mold. The lifter is made of thin sections of steel of various length and width one end bent.


These types of foundry tools are used for finishing flat surfaces and joints and partings lines of the mold. It’s made of the metal blade made of iron and with a wooden handle. It’s also used in guts and repairs the mold surfaces.


Slicslick are types of foundry tools that are generally used for repairing and finishing molds surfaces and their edges. It’s done after the withdrawal of the pattern. The common types of slicks are heart and leaf, square and heart, spoon and bead and heart spoon. Their nomenclature is largely due to their shapes.


Smoother are given a different name according to their names. It is generally known as finishing tools used for repairing and finishing flat and round surfaces, round or square corners and edges of


Swabs are small hemp fiber brush used for moistening the edges of sand mold surface and pattern. It is also used for coating the liquid blacking on the mold faces in dry sand molds.

Spirit level

the spirit level is used by molder to check whether the sand bed or molding box is horizontal or not.

Gate cutter

Gate cutter is made of a small shaped sheet metal commonly used for cutting runners and feeding gates for connecting spruce hole with the mold cavity.


Daggers are made of pieces of wire or rods bent at one or both ends which are used for reinforcing the downward projecting sand mass in the cope.


Bellows are used to blow away the loose or unwanted sand from the surfaces of the mold cavity.

Clamp, cutters and wedges

they are made of steel used for clamping the molding boxes firmly together during pouring.

Hand Tool

1. Shovel:

A shovel is used for mixing the sand with other ingredients. It is also used for handling the sand from one place to another in the foundary shop. It consists of a square metal pan fitted with a wooden handle Fig. 4.1 (a).

2. Riddle:

A riddle is used for cleaning the moulding sand. It removes the unwanted material like metal scrap, iron and other metal parts, pebbles etc., Fig. 4.1. (b).

Shovel and Riddles

3. Rammers:

A rammer is a wood or metal tool used for ramming or packing the sand in the moulding box. It has two parts peen and butt. Rammers are available in different designs and constructions. The popular and widely used rammers are peen-rammer, bench-rammer, and floor-rammer etc., Fig. 4.1 (c).


4. Trowels:

A trowel is used for finishing and repairing a mould. It consists of a metal-flat with different shapes and wooden handle. It is also used for smoothen the mould surfaces, shaping the square corners, finishing the parting surfaces. It is available in different shapes like rectangular, triangular, square, round etc., Fig. 4.1 (d).


5. Strike-Off Bar:

A strike-off bar is used for striking off the excess sand from the mould to provide a smooth surface. It is a straight bar of wood or steel and usually have rectangular cross-section Fig. 4.1 (e).

Strike off Bar and Vent Wire

6. Vent Wire:

A vent wire is used to form vents or holes in the rammed sand to provide easy escape of gases or steam formed during pouring of molten metal. It is a circular or rectangular long needle tool, pointed edge at one end and handle at the other end Fig. 4.1 (J).

7. Lifter:

A lifter is used for picking up the unwanted dust and damaged parts of the mould. It is a L- shaped steel tool with long holding shank and a small toe. It is available in thin sections of various width and lengths, according to the shape of the mould Fig. 4.1 (g).


8. Slick:

A slick is used for repair and finishing the mould surface after the removal of pattern. It is a double ended tool having a spoon on one end and a flat on the other end Fig. 4.1. (h)


9. Swab:

A swab is used for moistening the sand around the edge before the pattern is withdrawn. It consists of soft hair brush to hold water at one end, and a rubber buld at the other end Fig. 4.1. (j).


10. Bellow:

A bellow is used to blow loose particles of sand from the cavity and surface of the mould. Sometimes, a compress jet of air is used for this purpose Fig. 4.1. (j).

Hand Bellow

11. Gate Cutter:

A gate cutter is used for cutting the gate in the mould which acts as a passage for the hot metal. It is U-shaped piece of thin sheet metal Fig. 4.1 (k).

Gate Cutter

12. Sprue Cutter:

A sprue cutter is used for creating a run-through or sprue for the molten metal in the cope. It has tapered cylindrical shape and made from wood Fig. 4.1 (l).

Sprue Cutter

13. Draw Screw:

A draw screw is used for drawn out the pattern embedded in the moulding sand. It is a pointed steel rod, with a loop at one end. Wooden mallet is used for striking the draw screw, also called draw spike. Fig. 4.1 (m).

Draw Screw

14. Mallet:

A mallet is used to loosen the pattern in the mould so that it can be removed easily. It is used together with draw spike Fig. 4.1 (n).


15. Gagger:

A gagger is used for reinforcing the moulding sand in the cope part of the moulding box. These are the iron rods or thick wires bent at one or both the ends. The bottom end of the gagger must be kept 5 to 8 mm away from the embedded pattern Fig. 4.1 (o).


16. Rapping Plate:

A rapping plate is used for lift the large and heavy pattern from the mould. It is a steel plate and firmly fixed to the top of the pattern by means of bolts and screw. Rapping plates are available in many shapes Fig. 4.1 (p).

Rapping Plate

17. Clamps:

The clamps are used for holding the top and bottom parts of the mould so that the cope should not rise when the molten metal is poured into the mould cavity Fig. 4.1 (q).


18. Sprit Level:

A sprit level is used to keep sand bed, moulding box and table in horizontal position. It consists of an air bubble inside a curved glass tube Fig. 4.1 (r).

Sprit Level

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